Evaluation of the antifungal activities of various extracts from Pistacia atlantica Desf


1 Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

4 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Tehran, Iran


Background and Purpose: Despite the availability of various treatments for fungal diseases, there are some limitations in the management of these conditions due to multiple treatment-related side-effects. The present study was designed to investigate the antifungal properties of different extracts from Pistacia atlantica Desf. Materials and Methods: Different parts of P. atlantica (i.e., dried fruit, fresh fruit and dried leaf) were separately extracted via percolation method with 80% methanol and water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was performed to determine the main constituents of leaf and fruit extracts from P. atlantica. In vitro anti-Candida activities of the extracts against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. For this purpose, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined, using broth microdilution method, according to the modified M27-A3 protocol on yeasts, proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
Results: Based on GC/MS analysis, the main constituents of P. atlantica fruit extracts were &beta-myrcene (41.4%), &alpha-pinene (32.48%) and limonene (4.66%), respectively, whereas the major constituents of P. atlantica leaf extracts were trans-caryophyllene (15.18%), &alpha-amorphene (8.1%) and neo-allo-ocimene (6.21%), respectively. As the findings indicated, all the constituents exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activities, with MICs ranging from 6.66 to 26.66 mg/mL and MFCs ranging from 13.3 to 37.3 mg/mL, respectively. Among the evaluated extracts, the methanolic fresh fruit extract of P. atlantica was significantly more effective than other extracts (p <0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, novel antifungal agents need to be developed, and use of P. atlantica should be promoted in the traditional treatment of Candida infections.



Today, the incidence of fungal infections is rising, considering the increased vulnerability of immunocompromised individuals, including patients with organ transplants, cancer and HIV/AIDS [1]. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts belonging to the genus Candida. Over the past three decades, Candida species have emerged as an important cause of opportunistic and healthcare-associated infections [2].

Candida albicans has been introduced as the most prevalent pathogen in systemic fungal infections [3]. On the other hand, other Candida species account for more than 50% of fungal infections [3]. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being increasingly reported as an agent of invasive infection, particularly in immune-compromised or critically ill patients. Therefore, this organism should be included in the growing list of emerging fungal pathogens [4].

The available treatments for fungal diseases are diverse and numerous. However, only a few classes of antifungal agents are currently available for the treatment of yeast infections due to their high toxicity, emergence of drug resistance, pharmacokinetic deficiencies and/or insufficient antifungal activities [5, 6]. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel, effective treatment alternatives.

Due to limited side-effects, low cost and extensive availability, plant extracts and plant-derived compounds are valuable sources, which are commonly used for the treatment of a variety of conditions including infectious diseases [7]. The genus Pistacia belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. Among 15 known species of pistachios, only three grow in Iran, including P. vera, P. khinjuk and P. atlantica [8].

For the past 3000 years, P. atlantica Desf. has commonly grown in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. This plant, regionally known as "Baneh", grows in the central, Western and Eastern areas of Iran [9]. Different parts of this plant, including the resin, leaf, bark, fruit and aerial parts, have been widely used as traditional medicines for the treatment of various conditions such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, cutaneous, renal and infectious diseases. Moreover, previous studies have indicated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-asthmatic and antimicrobial properties of this plant [9].

To the best of our knowledge, no previous research has focused on the anti-Candida activities of different parts of P. atlantica. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activities of various leaf and fruit extracts from P. atlantica against C. albicans, C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae.

Material and Methods

Chemical substances

The crude powder of miconazole (MZ) as the control agent was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA. RPMI-1640 medium, l-glutamine and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). Also, potato dextrose agar (PDA) was obtained from Oxoid Ltd. (Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK). In addition, chloramphenicol and cycloheximide were purchased from Merck, Germany. All other chemicals and solvents were of an analytical grade.

Fungal strains

Standard strains of C. albicans (PTCC 5012), C. glabrata (CBS 138) and S. cerevisiae (PTCC 5177) were obtained at the Department of Medical Mycology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The strains were incubated in SDA at 30 ˚C for 2-3 days.

Plant materials

The plant materials (i.e., fruit and leaves), investigated in this study, were collected from rural regions of Lorestan province, situated in West of Iran during May-September 2013. The plant parts were identified by a botanist at the Department of Botanical Sciences at Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran. Voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of Research Center for Agricultural Sciences at Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran (No: 2522).

Extract preparation

For extract preparation, 10 g of the powdered plant materials (i.e., dried fruit, fresh fruit and dried leaf) was separately and successively extracted through the percolation method with 80% methanol and water for 72 h at room temperature. The extracts were passed through a filter paper (Whatman No. 3, Sigma-Aldrich Co., Germany) to remove the plant debris. The extracts were finally vacuum-concentrated at 50 °C, using a rotary evaporator (Heidolph, Germany) and stored at -20 °C until use [10].

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the extracts

The chemical components of P. atlantica extracts were identified via extraction, using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Initially, the samples were ground into a fine powder, using a household mill. Two grams of the samples were weighed and transferred to a 20 ml vial. Afterwards, the vial containing the sample was transferred to an ultrasonic device for extracting the volatile substances. The temperature of the ultrasonic device was set at 50 °C for 15 min.

In the next step, the SPME fiber was placed on the upper surface of the sample for 40 min to extract the volatile compounds. Immediately after the extraction, the SPME fiber was injected into the GC-MS device for desorbing and identifying the composition of the samples. Desorption was performed in the GC column for 2 min. The SPME fiber holder was applied for manual use, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 µm) fibers were obtained from Supelco Inc. (Bellefonte, PA, USA).

GC/MS analysis was performed, using the Agilent 6890N, coupled with the HP-5MS column (30m×0.25 mm, film thickness: 0.25 mm). The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C for 12 min. Afterwards, the temperature was programmed to increase to 180 °C at a rate of 10 °C per min and remained at 180 °C for 4 min. Also, the temperature of the injector and interface was set at 250 °C and 280 °C, respectively.

The flow rate of helium as the carrier gas was 1 mL/min CF. The percentages of components were calculated by electronic integration of peak areas in flame ionization detector (FID), without using response factor corrections. Linear retention indices for all the components were determined by co-injection of the samples with a solution containing homologous C8-C24 series of n-alkanes.

Identification of the extract constituents

The constituents of the extracts were identified by comparing their relative retention time and mass spectra with the Standard Wiley Library (2001) data on the GC/MS system or the data reported in the literature [11].

Extract dilutions

For the preparation of extract dilutions, 1,280 mg of the extracts was dissolved in 1 mL of normal saline. Serial dilutions were subsequently prepared to obtain 1-128 mg/mL concentrations of the extracts (Table 1). To prepare the MZ dilutions, 0.01280 g of the crude powder was dissolved in 10 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 1%), and the serial dilution was subsequently prepared to obtain MZ at 0.0009-64 µg/mL (Table 1).

Selection of the dilutions of the extracts and MZ was based on the initial experiments, which showed that DMSO below 1.5% could exert no effects on the growth of Candida species. In the present study, the concentration of DMSO in various dilutions was 1% or less [12].

In vitro antifungal activity

Anti-Candida effects of fruit and leaf extracts from P. atlantica against the tested fungi were determined via broth microdilution method, according to the modified M27-A3 protocol on yeasts by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) [13].

Inoculum preparation for antifungal susceptibility tests

In broth microdilution method, standardized inocula (2.5–5×103 CFU/mL) for Candida species were prepared by turbidimetry. The stock inocula were prepared on day two for culturing Candida species, grown on SDA at 30 ˚C. Sterile normal saline solution (0.9%, 3 mL) was added to the agar slant, and the cultures were gently swabbed to dislodge the blastoconidia from Candida species.

The blastoconidia suspensions of Candida species were transferred to sterile tubes, and the volume of suspensions was adjusted to 4 mL, using sterile saline solution. The resulting suspensions were allowed to settle for 5 min at 28 ˚C. The density of suspensions was read at 530 nm and adjusted to 95% transmittance. The suspensions were diluted to 1:2000 in RPMI-1640 medium, supplemented with l-glutamine (without sodium bicarbonate). The suspensions were buffered (pH=7.0) with 0.165 mol/L of morpholinepropanesulfonic acid to obtain an inoculum size of 2.5–5×103 CFU/Ml.

Tested samples Abbreviations Concentrations
Dried fruit methanolic extract DFM 1-128 mg/mL
Fresh fruit methanolic extract FFM 1-128 mg/mL
Leaf methanolic extract LM 1-128 mg/mL
Leaf aqueous extract LA 1-128 mg/mL
Miconazole MZ 0.0009–64 µg/mL
Table 1.Concentrations of P. atlantica extracts used in the present study
Total 98.7
No. Compounds Retention time Components (%)
α-pinene 6.68 32.48
Sabinene 7.85 3.066
β-myrcene 8.33 41.04
α-terpinene 8.72 0.377
Delta-3-carene 8.89 1.337
Limonene 9.51 4.66
Cis-ocimene 9.78 1.621
Trans-ocimene 10.13 1.100
γ-terpinene 10.49 0.478
α-terpinolene 11.47 0.807
Farnesyl acetone 11.69 0.121
Linalool 12.01 1.019
(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene 12.40 2.390
Alloocimene 12.88 1.363
Trans-pinocarveol 13.34 0.179
Verbenol 13.56 0.582
Pinocarvone 14.11 0.135
L-menthol 14.54 0.133
4-terpineol 14.65 0.165
Piperitone 17.25 0.392
Heneicosane 17.88 0.118
Trans-carane 18.47 0.130
Camphene 19.84 0.085
α-terpinenylacetat 20.30 0.422
α-ylangene 20.96 0.189
Copaene 21.11 0.069
Trans-caryophyllene 22.47 1.368
α-caryophyllene 23.47 0.388
β-santalene 24.15 0.403
Eicosane 24.48 0.140
Isoseychellene 24.64 0.258
α-muurolene 24.75 0.097
Delta-cadinene 25.37 0.228
Nerolidol 26.46 0.683
Verbenyl ethyl ether 26.99 0.292
Mayuron 28.46 0.172
11-n-decyldocosane 30.74 1.339
1-Hexacosene 32.54 0.234
Table 2.The composition of P. atlantica fruit extracts identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis

Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC)

The MICs were determined by broth microdilution method in accordance with the CLSI M27-A3 protocol. The microdilution assay was performed in 96-well microdilution plates. Growth and sterile control wells were included for each tested extract. The microplates were incubated at 37 ˚C and read visually after 48 h.

The assays were run in duplicate for all the extracts and repeated at least twice. MIC was defined as the lowest oil concentration, causing 100% inhibition of visible fungal growth. The results were read visually, as recommended by CLSI. MFCs were determined by subculturing 100 µL of the solution from the wells without turbidity on PDA at 28 ˚C. MFC was defined as the lowest concentration resulting in no growth on the subculture after two days.

Statistical analysis

SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Differences between the extracts were determined, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


GC/MS analysis of the extracts

Tables 2 and 3 present the identified constituents of fruit and leaf extracts from P. atlantica and the percentages obtained by GC/MS analysis. The main constituents of fruit extracts were β-myrcene (41.4%), α-pinene (32.48%) and limonene (4.66%), respectively. In addition, the major constituents of leaf extracts from P. atlantica included trans-caryophyllene (15.18%), α-amorphene (8.1%) and neo-allo-ocimene (6.21%), respectively.

In vitro antifungal activities of the extracts

As presented in Table 4, various extracts of P. atlantica demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities, with MICs ranging from 6.66 to 26.66 mg/mL and MFCs ranging from 13.3 to 37.3 mg/mL. Among the tested extracts, the methanolic extract of fresh P. atlantica fruit was significantly more effective than other evaluated extracts, as it exhibited lower MICs (range: 6.66-10.66 mg/mL) and MFCs (range: 13.3-21.3 mg/mL) for all the tested fungal strains (P<0.05).

Total 85.7
No. Compounds Retention time Components (%)
α-pinene 6.67 3.345
β-pinene 7.89 0.801
β-myrcene 8.30 2.097
Tetradecane 10.36 0.480
γ-terpinene 10.48 0.715
Nonanal 12.03 0.554
L-camphor 13.44 0.134
Menthone 13.76 1.298
Borneol 14.30 0.662
L-menthol 14.54 1.725
Dodecane 15.19 0.369
Bornyl acetate 18.18 0.725
Thymol 19.04 0.180
Dodecane 19.41 0.633
Camphene 20.30 0.837
Aromadendrene 20.98 3.137
Copaene 21.12 1.818
α-cadinene 21.55 0.417
Tetradecane 21.77 1.113
α-gurjunene 22.15 1.826
trans-caryophyllene 22.48 15.18
Calarene 22.70 1.290
Germacrene D 22.91 1.149
Neo-allo-ocimene 23.05 6.21
β-selinene 23.15 1.493
α-humulene 23.47 3.000
Heptacosane 23.56 1.100
Valencene 23.65 1.537
α-amorphene 24.11 8.1
Dodecane 24.48 2.451
Isoledene 24.61 2.989
α-muurolene 24.76 2.803
β-cadinene 25.16 3.669
Delta-cadinene 25.38 5.915
β-cadinene 25.69 0.607
α-muurolene 25.77 1.143
α-calacorene 25.95 1.118
Nerolidol 26.47 1.422
Caryophyllene oxide 27.00 1.620
1,2-dihydro-2,2,3-trimethyl-1-quinoxaline-4-dioxide 28.35 3.436
Eudesmol 28.79 1.718
Tritetracontane 30.68 0.901
Tetracosane 32.75 1.699
Table 3.The composition of P. atlantica leaf extracts identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis

In contrast, the aqueous extract of P. atlantica leaf exhibited the least significant antifungal effects, with the highest MIC (21.33 mg/mL) and MFC (37.3 mg/mL) values. Moreover, the MICs and MFCs for MZ as the control agent against the tested yeasts ranged from 0.0013 to 0.0026 mg/mL and 0.002 to 0.004 mg/mL, respectively. The negative controls also did not show any inhibitory effects against the tested yeast strains.

The difference in the antifungal effects between the extracts and the standard drugs was not statistically significant, whereas a significant difference was detected between the methanolic fruit extract and others (P<0.05). Based on the findings, among the tested fungi, C. albicans was most sensitive to P. atlantica extracts, while C. glabrata was the most resistant yeast.


Natural products such as plant extracts, either as pure or standardized compounds, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug discoveries, considering the unmatched availability of chemical diversity [14]. According to World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicines for their primary healthcare needs.

Over the past decades, advent of synthetic antimicrobials has resulted in an increasing aversion against medicinal plants as a rich resource of antimicrobial agents [15]. However, in recent years, some limitations in the use of these agents have led to some changes and attracted interest in the field of ethnobotanical research [16].

Based on the findings of the present study, all the tested extracts indicated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with MIC and MFC values ranging from 6.66 to 26.66 mg/mL and 13.3 to 37.3 mg/mL, respectively. Each of the evaluated extracts in the present study exhibited antifungal activities against at least one of the tested fungi. However, differences in the antifungal activities of the plant extracts indicated a broad antifungal spectrum. These variations in antifungal activity could be related to differences in the chemical composition of different parts of the plant as secondary metabolites, affecting the antimicrobial properties of these parts [15].

Tested samples Yeast strains
C. albicans C. glabrata S. cerevisiae
MIC(mg/mL) MFC(mg/mL) MIC(mg/mL) MFC(mg/mL) MIC(mg/mL) MFC(mg/mL)
Dried fruit methanolic extract 10.66 32 10.66 32 13.33 21.33
Fresh fruit methanolic extract 6.66* 13.3* 10.66* 32 10.66* 21.3
Leaf methanolic extract 21.33 32 26.66 32 21.33 32
Leaf aqueous extract 21.33 37.3 21.33 37.3 21.33 37.3
Miconazole (µg/mL) 0.0026** 0.004** 0.0013** 0.002** 0.0013** 0.002**
Data are expressed as mean values (n=3). *The difference in the anti-fungal effects with other P. atlantica extracts was statistically significant (P<0.05); **The difference in the anti-fungal effects with other P. atlantica extracts was statistically significant (P<0.05)
Table 4.Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) (mg/ml) of P. atlantica extracts against C. albicans, C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae

The activity of the plant extracts could be influenced by the nature of the plant material or its origin, climatic conditions in which the plant grows, the used plant parts and the extraction solvent [17]. In our study, the methanolic extract of fresh P. atlantica fruit significantly inhibited the growth of all tested fungi, while other extracts demonstrated weak to moderate antifungal activities.

Similarly, various studies have demonstrated the remarkable antifungal activities of various P. atlantica extracts against some pathogenic fungi including Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Geotrichum candidum [18, 19]. The results of the present study were in agreement with previous findings, indicating the antimicrobial properties of commonly used medicinal plants, which can be used in the traditional treatment of some conditions [20].

In this study, the major constituents of P. atlantica fruit extracts included β-myrcene (41.4%), α-pinene (32.48%) and limonene (4.66%), respectively, while the main constituents of leaf extracts were trans-caryophyllene (15.18%), α-amorphene (8.1%) and neo-allo-ocimene (6.21%), respectively. However, as previously indicated, the chemical composition of the extracts depends on their species, climatic conditions, time of collection and growth stage, which alter their biological activities [21].

The phytochemical screening of crude extracts showed the presence of terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, fatty acids and sterols in P. atlantica [9]. The individual activities of these compounds have been previously demonstrated [15]. In addition, antifungal activities of these compounds and their derivates such as 𝛼-pinene, limonene, thymol and carvacrol against some pathogenic fungal strains have been confirmed [22-25].

Ismail et al. [26] reported the correlation between antifungal activity and percentage of some compounds such as 𝛼-pinene, limonene and 𝛼-terpinene in P. atlantica. Therefore, phytoconstituents in this plant could be responsible for the anti-Candida activities, since the exact mode of action is poorly understood. Regarding the antimicrobial mechanism of some terpenoid compounds such as monoterpenes, Sikkema et al., have reported that compounds diffuse into pathogens and damage the structure of cell membranes [27].

Other studies have related antimicrobial activities to the ability of terpenes to affect not only permeability, but also other functions of cell membranes. These compounds might cross the cell membranes, penetrate into the cells and interact with critical intracellular sites [26, 28].

In conclusion, the findings of the present study revealed the antifungal effects of various P. atlantica extracts, particularly the fresh fruit extracts. Our results also provided scientific evidence on the use of natural plants in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections.


  1. Fontenelle RO, Morais SM, Brito EH, Brilhante RS, Cordeiro RA, Nascimento NR. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Croton species from the Brazilian Caatinga biome. J Appl Microbiol. 2006; 104(5):1383-90.
  2. Low CY, Rotstein C. Emerging fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. F1000 Med Rep. 2011; 3:14-21.
  3. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ. Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(10):4419-31.
  4. Enache-Angoulvant A, Hennequin C. Invasive Saccharomyces infection: a comprehensive review. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41(11):1559-68.
  5. Watanabe S. Present state and future direction of topical antifungals. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 1999; 40(3):151-5.
  6. De Pauw B. Is there a need for new antifungal agents?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2000; 6(Suppl 2):23-8.
  7. Rocha LG, Almeida JR, Macedo RO, Barbosa-Filho JM. A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicin. 2005; 12(6-7):514-35.
  8. Mozaffarian V. Trees and Shrubs of Iran. Farhang Moaser: Tehran, Iran; 2005.
  9. Bozorgi M, Memariani Z, Mobli M, Salehi Surmaghi MH, Shams-Ardekani MR, Rahimi R. Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): a review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Scientific World J. 2013; 2013:1-33.
  10. Mahmoudvand H, Sharififar F, Rahmat MS, Tavakoli R, Dezaki ES, Jahanbakhsh S. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberisvulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica. J Vector Borne Dis. 2014; 51(4):294-9.
  11. Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corporation: Illinois, USA; 2004.
  12. Mahmoudvand H, Asadi A, Harandi MF, Sharififar F, Jahanbakhsh S, Dezaki ES. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014; 17(12):1001-6.
  13. CLSI Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of conidium-forming filamentous fungi. Approved standard CLSI document M38-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: Wayne; 2002.
  14. Mahmoudvand H, Sharififar F, Sharifi I, Ezatpour B, Fasihi Harandi M, Makki MS. In vitro inhibitory effect of Berberis vulgaris (berberidaceae) and its main component, berberine against different Leishmania Species. Iran J Parasitol. 2014; 9(1):28-36.
  15. Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999; 12(4):564-82.
  16. McCutcheon AR, Ellis SM, Hancock RE, Tower GN. Antibiotic screening of medicinal plants of the British Columbian native peoples. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 37(3):213-23.
  17. Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. Afr J Biotech. 2008; 7(12):1797-806.
  18. Talibi I, karmiHAskarne L, Boubaker EH, Msanda F, Ati Ben Aoumar L. Antifungal activity of aqueous and organic extracts of eight aromatic and medicinal plants against Geotrichum candidum. Int J Agron Plant Prod. 2013; 4(5):3510-21.
  19. Rhouma A, Ben Daoud H, Ghanmi S, Ben Salah H, Romdhane R, Demak M. Antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of Pistacia and Schinus species against some plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. J Plant Pathol. 2009; 91(2):339-45.
  20. Lai PK, Roy J. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Curr Med Chem. 2004; 11(11):1451-60.
  21. Alma MH, Nitz S, Kollmannsberger H, Digrak M, Efe FT, Yilmaz N. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish pistachio (Pistaciavera L). J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52(12):3911-4.
  22. Mahmoudvand H, Sepahvand A, Jahanbakhsh S, Ezatpour B, Ayatollahi Mousavi SA. Evaluation of antifungal activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigellasativa and its main component, thymoquinone against pathogenic dermatophyte strains. J Mycol Med. 2014; 24(4):e155-61.
  23. Abbaszadeh S, Sharifzadeh A, Shokri H, Khosravi AR, Abbaszadeh A. Antifungal efficacy of thymol, carvacrol, eugenol and menthol as alternative agents to control the growth of food-relevant fungi. J Mycol Med. 2014; 24(2):e51-6.
  24. Mahmoudvand H, Ayatollahi Mousavi SA, Sepahvand A, Sharififar F, Ezatpour B, Gorohi F. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity activities of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and its active principle Berberine. ISRN Pharmacol. 2014; 2014:1-6.
  25. Vardar-Unlu G, Yağmuroğlu A, Unlu M. Evaluation of in vitro activity of carvacrol against Candida albicans strains. Nat Pro Res. 2010; 24(12):1189-93.
  26. Ismail A, Lamia H, Mohsen H, Samia G, Bassem J. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of three Anacardiaceae species grown in Tunisia. Sci Int. 2013; 1(5):148-54.
  27. Sikkema J, de Bont JA, Poolman B. Mechanisms of membrane toxicity of hydrocarbons. Microbiol Rev. 1995; 59(2):201-22.
  28. Cristani M, D'Arrigo M, Mandalari G, Castelli F, Sarpietro MG, Micieli D. Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2007; 55(15):6300-8.