Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background and Purpose: Tinea capitis and tinea unguium are regarded as global public health concerns. The purpose of the present study was to identify the etiological agents of tinea capitis and tinea unguium in patients, referring to the Central Laboratory of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during 2014-2015. Skin scraping, scalp hair, and nail clipping specimens were collected from 134 patients (80 males and 54 females) with clinical features suggesting fungal involvement. Direct microscopic examinations were carried out, using potassium hydroxide 10%, while culture studies were performed on Sabouraud dextrose agar, containing chloramphenicol and cycloheximide at 28°C for four weeks. Fungal colonies were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as supplementary diagnostic tests.
Results: Among 134 patients, 12 cases showed positive results on direct examination and culture studies. The frequency of infections was equal among male and female subjects. Among 12 affected cases, the frequency of tinea capitis and tinea unguium was 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively. Microsporum canis (50%) was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichophyton verrucosum (25%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25%). Also, tinea unguium, caused by T. mentagrophytes, was found in a female patient.
Conclusion: The etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis have changed in Yazd over the past 13 years. In the present study, replacement of anthropophilic dermatophytes by zoophilic species was noteworthy, highlighting the necessity of efficient surveillance for the management and prevention of infections.