The effect of nanochitosans particles on Candida biofilm formation


1 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Prosthodontics, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background and Purpose: In people wearing dentures, the growth of various Candida species under the prosthesis
leads to the formation of biofilm, which can play the role of a reservoir for Candida and other kinds of microbes. Since
nano-chitosan particles can cause lasting antimicrobial activity, a more recent approach that utilizes acrylic resins with
nano-chitosan particles is proposed. Therefore, we aimed to study the inhibitory effect of nano-chitosan particles on the
biofilm formation of Candida species in acrylic resins.
Materials and Methods: In this analytical in-vitro study, acrylic resins with nano-chitosan particles with concentrations of
0, 1%, 5%, and 10% were put adjacent to the suspension of Candida cells isolated from the individuals’ mouth and biofilm
formation on resins was measured and compared. Finally, the data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests.
Results:The observed differences between unmodified acrylic resin (control) and acrylic resin with nano-chitosan
particles in terms of biofilm formation were significant (p <0.05), but no significant difference was found in the formation
of biofilm species on resins.
Conclusion: Biofilm formation of Candida species depends on acrylic resin type, in a way that by adding nano-chitosan
particles to acrylic resins, biofilm formation of Candida species was significantly reduced. To decrease the organization
of biofilm and denture stomatitis, the use of acrylics with nano-chitosan particles in producing dentures is recommended.


1. Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J. 2002; 78(922):455-9.
2. Avendano M, Glymour MM, Banks J, Mackenbach JP. Health disadvantage in US adults aged 50 to 74
years: a comparison of the health of rich and poor Americans with that of Europeans. Am J Public
Health. 2009; 99(3):540-8.
3. Hibino K, Samaranayake LP, Hägg U, Wong RW, Lee W. The role of salivary factors in persistent oral
carriage of Candida in humans. Arch Oral Biol. 2009; 54(7):678-83.
4. Lyon JP, da Costa SC, Totti VM, Munhoz MF, de Resende MA. Predisposing conditions for Candida spp. carriage in the oral cavity of denture wearers and individuals with natural teeth. Can J Microbiol. 2006; 52(5):462-7.
5. Webb BC, Thomas CJ, Willcox MD, Harty DW, Knox KW. Candida ‐associated denture stomatitis.
Aetiology and management: a review: Part1. Factors influencing distribution of Candida species in the oral cavity. Aust Dent J. 1998; 43(1):45-50.
6. Weir E, Lawlor A, Whelan A, Regan F. The use of nanoparticles in anti-microbial materials and their
characterization. Analyst. 2008; 133(7):835-45.
7. Van Houdt R, Michiels CW. Role of bacterial cell surface structures in Escherichia coli biofilm
formation. Res Microbiol. 2005; 156(5):626-33.
8. Alves NM, Picart C, Mano JF. Self assembling and crosslinking of polyelectrolyte multilayer films
of chitosan and alginate studied by QCM and IR spectroscopy. Macromol Biosci. 2009; 9(8):776-85.
9. Ilium L. Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Pharm Res. 1998; 15(9):1326-31.
10. Ramnani S, Sabharwal S. Adsorption behavior of Cr (VI) onto radiation crosslinked chitosan and its possible application for the treatment of wastewater containing Cr (VI). React Funct Polym. 2006; 66(9):902-9.
11. Kumar MR, Muzzarelli RA, Muzzarelli C, Sashiwa H, Domb AJ. Chitosan chemistry and pharmaceutical perspectives. Chem Rev. 2004; 104(12):6017-84.
12. Chien PJ, Sheu F, Yang FH. Effects of edible chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of sliced mango fruit. J Food Engine. 2007; 78(1):225-9.
13. Yilmaz E. Chitosan: a versatile biomaterial. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2004; 553:59-68.
14. Fujimoto T, Tsuchiya Y, Terao M, Nakamura K, Yamamoto M. Antibacterial effects of Chitosan solution® against Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Food Microbiol. 2006; 112(2):96-101.
15. Hayashi Y, Ohara N, Ganno T, Ishizaki H, Yanagiguchi K. Chitosan-containing gum chewing accelerates antibacterial effect with an increase in salivary secretion. J Dent. 2007; 35(11):871-4.
16. Xu J, Zhao X, Han X, Du Y. Antifungal activity of oligochitosan against Phytophthora capsici and other plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2007; 87(3):220-8.
17. Bae K, Jun EJ, Lee SM, Paik DI, Kim JB. Effect of water-soluble reduced chitosan on Streptococcus mutans, plaque regrowth and biofilm vitality. Clin Oral Investig. 2006; 10(2):102-7.
18. Hernandez-Lauzardo AN, Bautista-Baños S, Velazquez-Del Valle MG, Méndez-Montealvo M, Sánchez-Rivera M, Bello-Perez LA. Antifungal effects of chitosan with different molecular weights on in vitro development of Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Vuill. Carbohydr Polym. 2008; 73(4):541-7.
19. Chandra J, Kuhn DM, Mukherjee PK, Hoyer LL, McCormick T, Ghannoum MA. Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture, and drug resistance. J Bacteriol. 2001; 183(18):5385-94.
20. Jin Y, Samaranayake LP, Samaranayake Y, Yip HK. Biofilm formation of Candida albicans is variably affected by saliva and dietary sugars. Arch Oral Biol. 2004; 49(10):789-98.
21. Kojic EM, Darouiche RO. Candida infections of medical devices. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17(2):255-67.
22. Peterson TS. Treatment and prevention of fungal infection. focus on candidemia. New York: Applied Clinical Education; 2007.
23. Ramage G, Saville SP, Thomas DP, Lopez-Ribot JL. Candida biofilms: an update. Eukaryot Cell. 2005; 4(4):633-8.
24. Pruthi V, Al-Janabi A, Pereira BJ. Characterization of biofilm formed on intrauterine devices. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2003; 21(3):161-5.
25. Jepson N, Allen F, Moynihan P, Kelly P, Thomason M. Patient satisfaction following restoration of shortened mandibular dental arches in a randomized controlled trial. Int J Prosthodont. 2003; 16(3):409-14.
26. Monsenego P. Presence of microorganisms on the fitting denture complete surface: study ‘in vivo’. J Oral Rehabil. 2000; 27(8):708-13.
27. Shrestha A, Shi Z, Neoh KG, Kishen A. Nanoparticulates for antibiofilm treatment and effect of aging on its antibacterial activity. J Endod. 2010; 36(6):1030-5.
28. Chen CP, Chen CT, Tsai T. Chitosan nanoparticles for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation: characterization and in vitro investigation. Photochem Photobiol. 2012; 88(3):570-6.
29. Costa EM, Silva S, Madureira AR, Cardelle-Cobas A, Tavaria FK, Pintado MM. A comprehensive study into the impact of a chitosan mouthwash upon oral microorganism’s biofilm formation in vitro. Carbohydr Polym. 2014; 101:1081-6.
30. Rabea EI, Badawy ME, Stevens CV, Smagghe G, Steurbaut W. Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Biomacromolecules. 2003; 4(6):1457-65.
31. Sudarshan NR, Hoover DG, Knorr D. Antibacterial action of chitosan. Food Biotechnol. 1992; 6(3):257-72.
32. Nikawa H, Sadamori S, Hamada T, Satou N, Okuda K. Non-specific adherence of Candida species to surface-modified glass. J Med Veterin Mycol. 1989; 27(4):269-71.
33. Miyake Y, Fujita Y, Minagi S, Suginaka H. Surface hydrophobicity and adherence of Candida to acrylic surfaces. Microbios. 1986; 46(186):7-14.
34. Azcurra AI, Barembaum SR, Bojanich MA, Calamari SE, Aguilar J, Battellino LJ, et al. Effect of the high molecular weight chitosan and sodium alginate on Candida albicans hydrophobicity and adhesion to cells. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006; 11(2):E120-5.
35. Tumbarello M, Posteraro B, Trecarichi EM, Fiori B, Rossi M, Porta R, et al. Biofilm production by Candida species and inadequate antifungal therapy as predictors of mortality for patients with candidemia. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45(6):1843-50.