Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2017)                   Curr Med Mycol 2017, 3(2): 26-32 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Abstract:   (1520 Views)
Background and Purpose: Ozone is an inorganic molecule with effective antimicrobial properties. Clinical treatment of ozonated water was used for the elimination of Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, endotoxins, and biofilms from root canals. In addition, its therapeutic effects for tinea pedis, ulcers, and leishmaniasis were investigated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal effects of ozone on different forms of C. albicans. In addition, antifungal susceptibility profile of strains was assessed before and after exposure to ozone.
Materials and Methods: Fifty strains of C. albicans were exposed to gaseous ozone at different times. Furthermore, biofilm formation and germ tube production were evaluated when yeast suspensions were exposed to ozone. In addition, antifungal susceptibility of ozone resistant colonies was investiagted as compared to controls.
Results: Ozone was highly effective in killing C. albicans in yeast form and inhibition of germ tube formation during 210 and 180 s, respectively. Although with increasing exposure time biofilm production was considerably decreased, resistance to ozone was much higher among vaginal and nail isolates even after 60 min. All the strains were sensitive to fluconazole, caspofungin, and terbinafine pre- and post-ozone exposure. Resistance to amphotericin B was significantly enhanced after exposure to ozone.
Conclusion: Although ozone was highly effective on the yeast form of C. albicans and it can inhibit the formation of germ tubes in C. albicans, the complete removal of biofilms did not happen even after 60 min. It seems that ozone therapy induces resistance to amphotericin B.  
Full-Text [PDF 707 kb]   (511 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Articles | Subject: Medical Mycology
Received: 2017/09/13 | Accepted: 2017/11/25 | Published: 2018/01/6

1. 1.Zanardi I, Burgassi S, Paccagnini E, Gentile M, Bocci V, Travagli V. What is the best strategy for enhancing the effects of topically applied ozonated oils in cutaneous infections? Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:702949.
2. Cardoso MG, de Oliveira LD, Koga-Ito CY, Jorge AO. Effectiveness of ozonated water on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, and endotoxins in root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontol. 2008; 105(3):e85-91.
3. Ozyildiz F, Karagonlu S, Basal G, Uzel A, Bayraktar O. Micro-encapsulation of ozonated red pepper seed oil with antimicrobial activity and application to nonwoven fabric. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013; 56(3):168-79. [DOI:10.1111/lam.12028]
4. Elvis A, Ekta J. Ozone therapy: a clinical review. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2011; 2(1):66-70. [DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82319]
5. Restaino L, Frampton EW, Hemphill JB, Palnikar P. Efficacy of ozonated water against various food-related microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995; 61(9):3471-5.
6. Coronel B, Duroselle P, Behr H, Moskovtchenko JF, Freney J. In situ decontamination of medical wastes using oxidative agents: a 16-month study in a polyvalent intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2002; 50(3):207-12. [DOI:10.1053/jhin.2002.1188]
7. Arita M, Nagayoshi M, Fukuizumi T, Okinaga T, Masumi S, Morikawa M, et al. Microbicidal efficacy of ozonated water against Candida albicans adhering to acrylic denture plates. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005; 20(4):206-10. [DOI:10.1111/j.1399-302X.2005.00213.x]
8. Bezirtzoglou E, Cretoiu SM, Moldoveanu M, Alexopoulos A, Lazar V, Nakou M. A quantitative approach to the effectiveness of ozone against microbiota organisms colonizing toothbrushes. J Dent. 2008; 36(8):600-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2008.04.007]
9. de Alencar ER, Faroni LR, Soares Nde F, da Silva WA, Carvalho MC. Efficacy of ozone as a fungicidal and detoxifying agent of aflatoxins in peanuts. J Sci Food Agri. 2012; 92(4):899-905. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.4668]
10. Noites R, Pina-Vaz C, Rocha R, Carvalho MF, Goncalves A, Pina-Vaz I. Synergistic antimicrobial action of chlorhexidine and ozone in endodontic treatment. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:592423. [DOI:10.1155/2014/592423]
11. Geweely NS. Antifungal activity of ozonized olive oil (Oleozone). Int J Agri Biol. 2006; 8(5):671-8.
12. Huth KC, Quirling M, Maier S, Kamereck K, Alkhayer M, Paschos E, et al. Effectiveness of ozone against endodontopathogenic microorganisms in a root canal biofilm model. Int Endod J. 2009; 42(1):3-13. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01460.x]
13. Cesar J, Sumita TC, Junqueira JC, Jorge AO, do Rego MA. Antimicrobial effects of ozonated water on the sanitization of dental instruments contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans, or the spores of B. atrophaeus. J Infect Public Health. 2012; 5(4):269-74.
14. Menendez S, Falcon L, Simon DR, Landa N. Efficacy of ozonized sunflower oil in the treatment of tinea pedis. Mycoses. 2002; 45(8):329-32. [DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0507.2002.00780.x]
15. Schwartz A. Ozone therapy in the treatment of recurrentvulvo-vaginitis by Candida albicans. Rev Espa-ola Ozonoter. 2015; 5(1):99-107.
16. Rajabi O, Sazgarnia A, Abbasi F, Layegh P. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015; 18(9):915-9.
17. Salehei Z, Seifi Z, Zarei Mahmoudabadi A. Sensitivity of vaginal isolates of Candida to eight antifungal drugs isolated from Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012; 5(4):574-7. [DOI:10.5812/jjm.4556]
18. da Silva Faria I, Ueno M, Koga-Ito CY, Urruchi WI, Balducci I, Jorge AO. Effects of ozonated water on Candida albicans oral isolates. Brazilian J Oral Sci. 2005; 4(14):783-6.
19. Bachmann SP, Vande Walle K, Ramage G, Patterson TF, Wickes BL, Graybill JR, et al. In vitro activity of caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002; 46(11):3591-6. [DOI:10.1128/AAC.46.11.3591-3596.2002]
20. Gharaghani M, Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Zarei Mahmoudabadi A, Keikhaei B. The frequency, antifungal susceptibility and enzymatic profiles of Candida species isolated from neutropenic patients. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016; 9(11):e41446.
21. Reference method for broth dilution abtifungal suceptibility testing of yeasts. M27-A3. 3rd ed. Pennsylvania, USA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2008.
22. Badiee P, Badali H, Diba K, Ghadimi Moghadam A, Hosseininasab A, Jafarian H, et al. Susceptibility pattern of Candida albicans isolated from Iranian patients to antifungal agents. Curr Med Mycol. 2016; 2(1):24-9. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.cmm.2.1.24]
23. St-Germain G, Laverdière M, Pelletier R, René P, Bourgault AM, Lemieux C, et al. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream Candida isolates in Quebec: report on 453 cases between 2003 and 2005. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2008; 19(1):55-62.
24. Rathod VS, Raut JS, Karuppayil SM. In vitro antifungal susceptibility reveals occurrence of azole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5(3):170-3.
25. Pfaller MA. Antifungal drug resistance: mechanisms, epidemiology, and consequences for treatment. Am J Med. 2012; 125(1 Suppl):S3-13.
26. Rezaei-Matehkolaei A, Shafiei S, Zarei-Mahmoudabadi A. Isolation, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of vaginal isolates of Candida species. Iran J Microbiol. 2016; 8(6):410-7.
27. Hubbezoglu I, Zan R, Tunç T, Sumer Z, Hurmuzlu F. Antifungal efficacy of aqueous and gaseous ozone in root canals infected by Candida albicans. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013; 6(5):e8150
28. Ali EM. Ozone application for preventing fungal infection in diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetol Croatica. 2013; 42(1):3-22.
29. Zarei Mahmoudabadi A, Zarrin M, Kiasat N. Biofilm formation and susceptibility to amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014; 7(7):e17105.
30. Arita M, Nagayoshi M, Fukuizumi T, Okinaga T, Masumi S, Morikawa M, et al. Microbicidal efficacy of ozonated water against Candida albicans adhering to acrylic denture plates. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005; 20(4):206-10. [DOI:10.1111/j.1399-302X.2005.00213.x]
31. Wiench R, Ilków A, Dziedzic A, Wojtyczka R, Cieślik-wegemund M, Kubicka-musiał M, et al. The eradication of Candida spp. from removable dentures exposed to ozonated water. J Clin Periodontol. 2015; 42:109.
32. Mohammadi Z, Soltani MK, Shalavi S. An update on the management of endodontic biofilms using root canal irrigants and medicaments. Iran Endod J. 2014; 9(2): 89-97.
33. Müller P, Guggenheim B, Schmidlin PR. Efficacy of gasiform ozone and photodynamic therapy on a multispecies oral biofilm in vitro. European J Oral Sci. 2007; 115(1):77-8 [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.2007.00418.x7-80.]