Evaluation of the effect of the gold nanoparticles prepared by green chemistry on the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kufa, Al-Najaf, Iraq

2 Department of Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Kufa, Al-Najaf, Iraq



Background and Objectives: Mineral nanoparticle synthesis via green chemistry is ‎considered a novel ‏procedure ‎that ‎has been introduced into some ‏‎‎industries and medical fields. This ‎paper aimed to focus on ‏synthesized gold ‎nanoparticles ‎‎‎‎(‎AuNPs‎) prepared via green chemistry and ‎their usage in the ‏treatment of cutaneous ‎candidiasis.‎‎
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on the green synthesis of AuNPs using olive leaf extract as a reducing ‎agent‎. The ‎UV‎ visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy techniques ‎were used to detect ‏the concentration of the prepared AuNPs‎. ‎The agar gel diffusion method was used to test ‏the ‎antifungal activity of the ‎‎prepared AuNPs in vitro. ‏Antifungal efficacy of the AuNPs in vivo ‎was tested by the ‎induction of‎‎ cutaneous ‎candidiasis in mice‎. ‎This research was conducted on four groups of mice‎. Groups 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the AuNPs suspension ‎and ‏Nystatin ointment in the treatment ‎of clinical infection, respectively. Groups 3 ‎and ‎4 were the infected ‎and the non-infected control groups, respectively.‎
Results: Based on the findings, the AuNP synthesis using olive leaves was ‎a suitable and ‎secure method. Moreover, it was found that the AuNP concentration of 40.77 ng‏\‏ml represented the minimum ‎inhibitory concentration for the ‎inhibition of the Candida albicans. The prepared AuNPs were more effective than Nystatin ‎in the ‏treatment ‎of cutaneous candidiasis.‎‎
Conclusion: Preparation of AuNPs via green chemistry using olive leaves as a reducing ‎agent is a ‏safe ‎and easy procedure that can be performed to produce AuNPs. In this study, the AuNPs ‎displayed antifungal ‏activity ‏both in vitro and in vivo.


1. Kumar A. Historic development of green chemistry. Chem Educ.
2013; 18(2):1-4.
2. Teimuri-Mofrad R, Hadi R, Tahmasebi B, Farhoudian S,
Mehravar M, Nasiri R. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles
using plant extract: mini-review. Nanochem Res. 2017;
3. Lee KX, Shameli K, Yew YP, Teow SY, Jahangirian H, RafieeMoghaddam R, et al. Recent developments in the facile biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their biomedical
applications. Int J Nanomed. 2020; 15:275-300.
4. Abou El-Nour KM, Eftaiha AA, Al-Warthan A, Ammar RA.
Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles. Arab J Chem.
2010; 3(3):135-40.
5. Mayer FL, Wilson D, Hube B.
Candida albicans pathogenicity
mechanisms. Virulence. 2013; 4(2):119-28.
6. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis:
a persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;
7. Kojic EM, Darouiche RO. Candida infections of medical
devices. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17(2):255-67.
8. Sardi JD, Pitangui ND, Gullo FP, Almeida AM, MendesGiannini MJ. A mini review of
Candida species in hospital
infection: epidemiology, virulence factor and drugs resistance
and prophylaxis. Tropl Med Surg. 2013; 1:1-7.
9. Fu J, Ding Y, Wei B, Wang L, Xu S, Qin P, et al. Epidemiology
Candida albicans and non-C.albicans of neonatal candidemia
at a tertiary care hospital in western China. BMC Infect Dis.
2017; 17(1):329.
10. Esfahani AN, Golestannejad Z, Khozeimeh F, Dehghan P,
Maheronnaghsh M, Zarei Z. Antifungal effect of Atorvastatin
Candida species in comparison to Fluconazole and
Nystatin. Med Pharm Rep. 2019; 92(4):368-73.
11. de Alteriis E, Maselli V, Falanga A, Galdiero S, Di Lella FM,
Gesuele R, et al. Efficiency of gold nanoparticles coated with the
antimicrobial peptide indolicidin against biofilm formation and
development of
Candida spp. clinical isolates. Infect Drug
Resist. 2018; 11:915-25.
12. Dang H, Fawcett D, Poinern GE. Green synthesis of gold
nanoparticles from waste macadamia nut shells and their
antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and
Staphylococcus epidermis. Int J Res Med Sci. 2019; 7(4):
13. Khalil MM, Ismail EH, El-Magdoub F. Biosynthesis of Au
nanoparticles using olive leaf extract: 1st nano updates. Arab J
Chem. 2012; 5(4):431-7.
14. Dubey SP, Lahtinen M, Sillanpää M. Green synthesis and
characterizations of silver and gold nanoparticles using leaf
extract of Rosa rugosa. Colloids Surf A. 2010; 364(1-3):34-41.
15. Samaka HM, Al-Mohana AM, Al-Hamadani AH, Al-Charrakh
AH. Genotyping and antifungal susceptibility profile of
isolated from cancer patients. J Chem Pharm Sci. 2018;
16. Guinea J, Recio S, Escribano P, Torres-Narbona M, Peláez T,
Sánchez-Carrillo C, et al. Rapid antifungal susceptibility
determination for yeast isolates by use of Etest performed
directly on blood samples from patients with fungemia. J Clin
Microbiol. 2010; 48(6):2205-12.
17. Magaldi S, Mata-Essayag S, Hartung de Capriles C, Perez C,
Colella MT, Olaizola C, et al. Well diffusion for antifungal
susceptibility testing. Int J Infect Dis. 2004; 8(1):39-45.
18. Trune DR, Kempton JB. Low dose combination steroids control
autoimmune mouse hearing loss. J Neuroimmunol. 2010; 229(1-
19. Hahn BL, Sohnle PG. Characteristics of dermal invasion in
experimental cutaneous candidiasis of leucopenic mice. J Invest
Dermatol. 1988; 91(3):233-7.
20. Westhoff DK, Kloes MC, Orveillon FX, Farnow D, Elbers K,
Mueller RS. Treatment of feline dermatophytosis with an
inactivated fungal vaccine. Open Mycol J. 2010; 4(1):401-10.
21. Osonga FJ, Yazgan I, Kariuki V, Luther D, Jimenez A, Le P,
Sadik OA. Greener synthesis and characterization, antimicrobial
and cytotoxicity studies of gold nanoparticles of novel shapes
and sizes. RSC Adv. 2016; 6(3):2302-13.
22. Liu X, Atwater M, Wang J, Huo Q. Extinction coefficient of
gold nanoparticles with different sizes and different capping
ligands. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2007; 58(1):3-7.
23. Smitha SL, Philip D, Gopchandran KG. Green synthesis of gold
nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009; 74(3):
24. Tawfik AA, Noaman I, El-Elsayyad H, El-Mashad N, Soliman
M. A study of the treatment of cutaneous fungal infection in
animal model using photoactivated composite of methylene blue
and gold nanoparticle. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2016;
25. Hu X, Ahmeda A, Zangeneh MM. Chemical characterization
and evaluation of antimicrobial and cutaneous wound healing
potentials of gold nanoparticles using Allium saralicum RM
Fritsch. Appl Organom Chem. 2020; 34(4):e5484.
26. Dananjaya SH, Thao NT, Wijerathna HM, Lee J, Edussuriya M,
Choi D, et al. In vitro and in vivo anticandidal efficacy of green
synthesized gold nanoparticles using Spirulina maxima
polysaccharide. Proc Biochem. 2020; 92:138-48
Volume 7, Issue 1
March 2021
Pages 1-5
  • Receive Date: 18 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 01 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 03 March 2021
  • First Publish Date: 03 March 2021