Before you begin
All publishing elements, from the author to the editor-in-chief, should observe the ethical rules in publishing. All ethical principles in publishing have been evaluated by the issued flowcharts of COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) and all are bound to obey the articles of the treaty. Authors publish their articles with confidence in the issued rules. On the other hand, all legal affairs of the authors will be protected by legal experts.
Manuscripts should be written in clear, grammatical English. The past tense should be used throughout in describing the results and the present tense in referring to previously established and generally accepted results. Authors who are unsure of correct English usage should have their manuscript checked by somebody who is proficient in the language; manuscripts that are deficient in this respect may be returned to the author for revision before scientific review.
Manuscripts must be typewritten in Times New Roman font, 12 points size, double-spaced (including References, Tables, and Figure legends) with wide margins (2.5 cm from all sides) on one side of A4 paper. The beginning of each new paragraph must be clearly indicated by indentation. Each of the following sections should start on a separate page: Abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends. All pages should be numbered consecutively at the bottom starting with the title page. Important Note: Add line numbers continuously.
Title and Running Title:
Write a brief and informative title that identifies the nature of the subject matter. Avoid chemical formulas or abbreviations. Write a running title of no more than 50 characters and spaces.
The title page should include:
Abbreviations: Only common abbreviations may be used without definition. Terms appearing frequently (three or more times) within a paper may be abbreviated but should be spelled out at first citation, with the abbreviation following in parentheses.
This should be formatted including Background and Purpose, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The abstract should not be more than 400 words. Write the abstract in the third person. References should not be cited and abbreviations should be avoided.
A list of three to five keywords should be included at the foot of the abstract.
This should contain a description of the problem under investigation and relevant background information and published studies should be described concisely, and be cited appropriately.
Materials and Methods:
This section should only include information that was available at the time the study was planned or the protocol written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs to the results section.
This section should include the finding of the study. Data should not be repeated in both a table and a Figure.
Statistics: Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Define the statistical methods used to analyze the variables. Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001.
Include a summary of key findings; Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research). It should relate the results to previous works and interpret them not a simple recapitulation of the Results or Introduction section.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. References should be numbered sequentially in the order of their citation in the text and inserted between square brackets, e.g. , [6-10].
The list of references should follow the order of their citation with a complete listing of authors (if 7 or more authors, list the first 6 authors followed by et al.).
Only published, "in press" papers and books may be cited in the reference list. Periodical titles should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus.
For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference lists.
Word count limit: Check the limitation based on categories of articles.
Sending a revised manuscript